Template:Contains Perso-Arabic text Iran Air (Template:Lang-fa), formally Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran (هواپیمائی جمهوری اسلامی ایران Havapeyma'i-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān) is the flag carrier airline of Iran, operating services to 60 destinations, 35 international and 25 domestic. The cargo fleet operates services to 20 scheduled and 5 charter destinations. Its main bases are the Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport for international flights and Tehran Mehrabad Airport for domestic flights . It is headquartered on the grounds of Mehrabad Airport in Tehran, in a building, constructed by Israeli engineers prior to the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which had a Star of David on its roof for decades before being discovered and subsequently destroyed by Iranian authorities.
Its acronym, Homa (هما), is derived from two sources: the initial letters of Iran Air's pre-Revolutionary Persian name, Havapeyma'i-ye Melli-ye Iran (هواپیمایی ملی ایران); and from Homa, a griffin of Persian mythology.
Recent news reports by Press TV claim that the Iranian government plans to privatize Iran Air with its subsidy carrier Iran Air Tours along with the Homa Hotel Group.Template:Citation needed
In 1946, a group of businessmen founded Iran's first flag carrier under the name of Iranian Airways. Operations covered domestic and regional passenger and freight services plus a weekly freight service to Europe. The fleet consisted of Douglas DC-3s initially, supplemented by Douglas DC-4 and Vickers Viscount aircraft, later on. In 1954, the privately owned airline Persian Air Services (PAS) was established, which initially operated only freight services, followed by passenger operations between Tehran and other major cities in Iran. In 1960, PAS initiated service to several European destinations, including Geneva, Paris, Brussels and London, using Douglas DC-7C aircraft, leased from Sabena.
On 24 February 1962, Iranian Airways and PAS merged to form the Iran National Airlines Corporation, known as Iran Air. It was a public sector venture that combined the assets and liabilities of the two predecessor air carriers. Among the aircraft used were Avro York, Douglas DC-3, Douglas DC-6 and Vickers Viscount. The carrier became a full member of IATA in 1964.
"Iranian Airways" was established in May 1944 and flew its first passenger flight after World War II from Tehran to the holy city of Mashhad. Within a period of 17 years, from 1945 to 1962, the airline developed into a major domestic carrier with a few international flights per week.
The board of ministers ratified a proposal to establish a national airline on 10 February 1961. Following this decision, on 24 February 1961, "Iranian Airways" and "Pars Airways", a private airline established in 1954, merged to form the new airline "Iran Air", using the "HOMA" bird as a symbol.
In 1965, Iran Air took delivery of its first jet aircraft, the Boeing 707 and the Boeing 727-100, followed by the Boeing 737-200 in 1971, the stretched Boeing 727-200 in 1974 and three variants of Boeing 747s (747-100, -200 and SP), starting in 1978-1979. By the mid-1970s, Iran Air was serving cities in Europe with non-stop and one-stop flights (there were over 30 flights per week to London alone).
On 8 October 1972, Iran Air placed an order with British Aircraft Corporation for two Concorde supersonic jets, plus one option. One was leased for a few flights from Tehran to Kish Island, but never appeared in Iran Air Livery. These orders were canceled in April 1980, in the wake of the Iranian Revolution, making Iran Air the last airline to cancel its Concorde orders.
On 29 May 1971, the Tehran to New York City route was inaugurated, first with Boeing 707s, making a stop-over at London Heathrow Airport. Shortly thereafter, the route was converted into a non-stop flight using Boeing 747SPs, making Iran Air the second Middle Eastern carrier (after El Al), to offer non-stop service to New York. With this flight, Iran Air set a new world record in time and distance for a non-stop, scheduled long-haul flight (12 hours and 15 minutes, 9,867 km - 6,131 mi - 5,328 nm). In 1978, the airline acquired six Airbus A300B2k aircraft for use on its domestic trunk and busy regional routes. By the end of that year, Iran Air was serving 31 international destinations stretching from New York City to Beijing and Tokyo. Plans were made to offer direct services to Los Angeles and to Sydney, for which the airline's long range Boeing 747SP aircraft were ideally suited. This would have allowed Iran Air to use Tehran as a midway point between East and West, because of its home base's favorable geographical location. Such plans were never realized.
By the late 1970s, Iran Air was the fastest growing airline in the world and one of the most profitable. By 1976, Iran Air was ranked second only to Qantas, as the world’s safest airline, having been accident free for at least ten consecutive years. Although both airlines were accident free, Iran Air came second only because of fewer operational hours flown compared to Qantas. Prior to this ranking, a fatal accident occurred on 25 December 1952, in which 27 of the 29 passengers on board perished, when their Douglas DC-3 crashed on landing.
After the Iranian RevolutionEdit
In the wake of the Iranian Revolution in February 1979, Iran Air began to reorganize its international operations, discontinuing service to a range of foreign destinations. Tehran was designated as the only official gateway to Iran, while Shiraz could be used as an alternate, only in case of operational requirements. All other cities in Iran lost their international status. However, in recent times, many of Iran's major city airports have regained a minor international status. These direct international flights using airports in other major Iranian cities currently serve regional countries.
The last departure from New York was on 7 November 1979. The last scheduled flight from Tehran to New York City on 8 November 1979 was diverted at the last minute to Montreal, prompted by an embargo suddenly imposed by the U.S. government. Subsequently, the Boeing 747SPs were used on the airline's European and Asian routes. In 1978, the first of six new Airbus A300B2s joined the fleet.
After the start of the Iran–Iraq War in September 1980, Iran Air's domestic and international operations were often subject to cancellation and irregularity, in line with the wartime situation. This continued until August 1988, when a cease-fire agreement took effect. Right from the start of the Iran–Iraq War, Abadan, the gateway to Iran's oil-producing region, lost all its air links, because the airport had to be closed.
The year 1981 saw the formal name of the airline changed to "The Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran". Iran Air carried 1.7 million passengers in that year. In 1990, the first of six Fokker 100 jets was added to the fleet and five more were added later on. In 2001, the airline bought six second-hand Airbus A310 aircraft (five -200 and one -300 series), since the U.S. authorities blocked the planned purchase of any new Airbus A330 units. In 2005, the carrier bought two Airbus A300-600s from Olympic Airlines. In the wake of the growing tension, between the U.S. and Iranian governments, over Iran's nuclear program, the plan to supply Boeing spare parts or aircraft, to upgrade the aging fleet of Iran Air, was blocked by the USA and members of the EU. However a new agreement between Iran and the United States at the end of 2006, has changed that and allowed an overhaul of Iran Air's fleet. The airline is wholly owned by the Government of Iran and has 7,500 employees.
Ongoing refueling conflict and EU banEdit
On 5 July 2010, an aviation official for Iran accused the U.K., Germany and the United Arab Emirates of refusing to refuel Iranian passenger jets. This move follows unilateral sanctions imposed by the US over the nuclear conflict. Iran Air and Mahan Air both claim to have been denied refuelling. A spokewoman for Abu Dhabi Airports Company (ADAC) said that there is a contract with Iranian passenger flights to refuel the aircraft and will continue to do so. A spokesperson for the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority said that it is down to independent suppliers if planes are to be fueled or not. Germany's Transport Ministry said the refuelling of Iranian planes was not banned under EU or UN sanctions but did not say whether any independent refuellers were denying refuelling. Later in the day, Dubai]] revealed that they too continue to refuel Iranian passengers flights in and out of Dubai. The next day, a spokeperson for Iran said that no such limitation had been imposed.
On 6 July 2010, it was announced that the European Commission would ban all of Iran Air's Airbus A320, Boeing 727 and Boeing 747 fleet from the EU over safety concerns. This move will come as a major blow to Iran Air, limiting flights to Europe with their own aircraft.
As a result of a move in March 2011, when a majority of the EU airports refused refueling services to Iran Air, most of Iran Air services originating from Western Europe to Tehran’s Imam Khomeini International Airport started landing in Belgrade, Serbia in order to refuel. On May 22 Switzerland has also announced to call-off the supply of Iranian airliners on their flights from Geneva. Following 3 month of refueling operations, the Belgrade airport authorities gradually suspended the contract with Iran Air, following political pressure from the United States.
Since this cessation of the contract, Iran Air aircraft operate technical stops in Kiev, Ukraine, en route to Tehran. For flights to and from London Heathrow, they either fly inbound or outbound via Manston Airport in Kent, as Manston presently has no flights originating from/going to the United States.
Iran Air familyEdit
Iran Air CargoEdit
Iran Air Cargo is the freight wing of the airline. In May 2008, it acquired two Airbus A300B4F aircraft to resume freighter operations, which were suspended after the grounding of its single Boeing 747-200F cargo aircraft. Freight is also flown with Iran Air's passenger fleet belly-hold capacity.
Iran Airtour is a low cost airline, based at the Mashhad International Airport (MHD) and is a subsidiary of Iran Air. Soviet-designed Tu-154M jets are the backbone of this airline, although Iran Air Tours has acquired a number of Airbus A300B4 and MD-83 aircraft on lease and in hybrid livery from Turkey, increasing its flights to domestic cities like Mashhad, Zahedan and Ahvaz.
Iran Air Tours initiated scheduled operations in 1990, taking over the bulk of the domestic services, formerly operated by Iran Air. Iran Air Tours has been responsible for the build-up of an extensive route network, focused on the northeastern Iranian city of Mashhad, home to the Imam Reza shrine, one of the holiest shrines of the Shi'a Muslims.
Reservations for Iran Air Tours flights can be made via the Iran Air system. The carrier also operates charter flights.
Homa Hotel GroupEdit
Homa Hotel Group is a subsidiary company of Iran Air, which owns a chain of five star hotels in the major cities of Iran. Homa Hotels are located in Tehran, Shiraz, Bandar Abbas and Mashhad, where there are two hotels. All the hotels were constructed prior to 1979, with the exception of the second Mashad hotel, built in the late 1990s.
The hotel group was established by the government, after the 1979 Iranian revolution and has more than 800 furnished rooms. Most of the hotels were under private control prior to 1979, but were nationalized soon after. The most famous of these was the Homa Hotel Tehran, which used to be the Tehran Sheraton, prior to being nationalized in 1979. These hotel are all ranked 5-stars, but may not meet international 5 star standards in service, decor and facilities.
Hajj and Umrah operationsEdit
Hajj charter operations form a major part of Iran Air's annual activities. Every year, tens of thousands of pilgrims fly from major cities in Iran to Jeddah]], Saudi Arabia's air gateway to Mecca, to take part in pilgrimage ceremonies.
In 2001, Iran Air carried around 60,000 pilgrims to Jeddah, within a span of 40 days. 352 Hajj charter flights were operated from 17 cities in Iran.
Iran Air also operates charter flights from cities in Iran to Jeddah, during the Umrah season. To deal with the operational requirements and to meet traffic demand, the airline leases aircraft including Boeing 747-200s and Airbus A300B2s.
|Aircraft||Total||Orders||Passengers||Year of entry||Notes|
|Iran Air Cargo Fleet|
Iran Air's average fleet age is 24.8 years (as of 31 December 2011).
Aircraft acquired by Iran Air must have less than 10% of US-manufactured components on board and it must not have belonged to a US airline since its registration. As most Airbus aircraft are powered by General Electric, CFM, Pratt and Whitney or Rolls-Royce engines, Iran Air has not been able to acquire many of their aircraft. Current American sanctions do not prevent Iran Air from leasing American or European aircraft but Iran Air prefers purchasing in order to be able to perform all maintenance and remain up to date with technological advances. Since purchasing from American or European manufacturers directly is prohibited under US and EU sanctions, Iran Air turns to third parties airlines as well as Russian manufacturers.
On 20 December 2006, Iran Air put back into operation one of its Boeing 747-SP aircraft that had been out of operation for many years, after putting it through a major overhaul by the Fajr Aviation & Composites Industry.Template:Citation needed In June of 2007, Iran Air managed to lease one A340-200 aircraft from Conviasa Airlines of Venezuela. This marked the first time a leasing operation was completed by an all-Iranian team lead by an Iranian Captain to set up the A340 fleet for two months.Template:Citation needed
On 14 August 2007, it was reported that Iran Air had overcome sanctions imposed by the west and that their fleet of A310s are ready to resume service. On 21 May 2008, it was reported that Iran Air may become subject to a new EU sanction, banning all its flights from landing in EU airports. According to Iran Air's managing director Saeed Hesami, EU is citing Iran Air's technical and safety shortcomings as the reason for the imminent ban.
Template:Uncited section Iran Air is to begin a partial modernization program of its own fleet and that of its subsidiary Iran Air Tours using new-generation Russian aircraft. In August 2007, the airline announced an order for 5 Tupolev Tu-204-100 aircraft. Five Tupolev Tu-204-100s will be acquired for Iran Air Tours. The Tu-204 deal has been disclosed by Moscow-based lessor Ilyushin Finance (IFC), which said that the firm contract would be signed by 15 December 2006, with the deal also including five options. Iran Air expects the five firmly ordered twin-jets to be delivered to Iran Air Tours in the second half of 2010, at a rate of one aircraft per month. Russia’s Ilyushin Finance has signed a preliminary contract with Iran Air Tours at the Dubai Air Show 2007 to supply Iran with 5 Tupolev 204 (Tu-204-100) aircraft.
In August 2007, the airline purchased 4 Fokker 100s from TAM Airlines of Brazil. Iran Air has also displayed a keen interest in the Sukhoi Superjet 100.
- Boeing 707
- Boeing 727-100
- Boeing 737
- McDonnell Douglas DC-9
- Douglas DC-3
- Douglas DC-6
- Boeing 747-200F
Incidents and accidentsEdit
- 25 December 1952: Iran Air Douglas DC-3; Tehran, Iran: 27 fatalities and two survivors.
- 21 January 1980: Iran Air Boeing 727-286; near Tehran, Iran: The aircraft hit high ground in a snowstorm during the approach to land. All eight crew members and 120 passengers were killed.
- 3 July 1988: Iran Air Flight 655 was flying over the Persian Gulf on its way to Dubai from Bandar Abbas. According to the U.S. version of events, the USS Vincennes CG-49 6 Navy cruiser mistook the airliner for an Iranian F-14 Tomcat and the cruiser shot the airliner down with a missile, killing all 16 crew and 274 passengers. While there were Iranian and American naval skirmishes, various sources including 60 Minutes and Newseek have alleged that the shoot-down was a deliberate act of aggression by the U.S Navy in the heat of Iran's 1980-1988 Gulf War against the American backed invasion of Saddam Hussein's regime into southern Iran, in which the U.S. was actively supporting Iraq with arm shipments and covert actions. The same sources claim that the captain of the U.S Navy ship implicated in the crime was harassing Iranian civilian shipping for two weeks prior to the crime. Iranians maintain it was an intentional act of barbarism. The United States called the incident a "mistake", although the Airbus airliner was over 20 times larger in size than an F-14 jet, within close proximity to the ship's long range radars. Furthermore, the United States, through Vice President George H. W. Bush, expressed regret and promised to compensate victims, but that the money would not go through the Iranian government. Newsweek published a long article titled "Sea of Lies" that largely blamed Capt. Will Rogers, the Vincennes’ commander.
- 2 January 2008: Iran Air Fokker 100 EP-IDB carrying 100 passengers skidded off the runway after its wing caught fire, when taking off for a domestic flight to Shiraz International Airport from Mehrabad Airport. No one was injured in the accident, which happened amid heavy snowfall at the airport.
- 18 November 2009: Iran Air Fokker 100 EP-CFO suffered an undercarriage malfunction on take-off from Isfahan International Airport. The aircraft was on a flight to Mehrabad Airport, Tehran when the undercarriage failed to retract. The aircraft landed at Isfahan but was substantially damaged when the left main gear collapsed. There were no casualties in this event.
- 15 January 2010: Iran Air Fokker 100 EP-IDA, operating Flight 223 was substantially damaged when the nose gear collapsed after landing at Isfahan International Airport. There were no casualties in this incident.
- 9 January 2011: Iran Air Flight 277, a Boeing 727-200 (registration EP-IRP) originating from Tehran crashed near its destination city of Orumiyeh, 460 miles northwest of Tehran. It was carrying 105 people, of whom 28 have survived. Bad weather conditions during landing lead to a go around.
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ "ارتباط با هما." IranAir. Retrieved on 12 January 2011. "آدرس : تهران ، جاده مخصوص كرج ، بلوار فرودگاه ،ادارات مركزي هما ، ساختمان پشتيباني ، طبقه دوم ، اتاق 217"
- ↑ "Contact IranAir." IranAir. Retrieved on 12 January 2011. "Address: No.221,Second Floor,Public Relations,Support Services BLd., IranAir H.Q.,Mehrabad Airport,Tehran,Iran."
- ↑ Iranians Furious After Finding Jewish Symbol Hidden In Plain View"
- ↑ Iran/USA agreement
- ↑ Britain, Germany and UAE refuse to refuel Iran planes
- ↑ Iranian passenger jets 'refused fuel'
- ↑ Dubai airport continues to refuel Iranian planes
- ↑ Iran rejects claim that planes were denied fuel
- ↑ Latest EU blacklist bans Iran Air A320s and 747s
- ↑ EU imposes flight ban on Iran Air over safety
- ↑ Worldwide Codeshare list Aug 2011
- ↑ Iran Air Fleet CH-Aviation
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Planespotters.net page for IranAir
- ↑ Iranair official fleet page
- ↑ Aircraft, November 2001, Iran Air Rare and Exclusive, Kian Noush, p.68
- ↑ Aircraft, November 2001, Iran Air Rare and Exclusive, Kian Noush, p.69
- ↑ Iran Air ready to resume flying A310s Flight Global, 14/08/07
- ↑ Abrar Newspaper
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Template:Cite news
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 SEA OF LIES - USS Vincennes shootdown of Iran Air Flight 655 on July 3, 1988
- ↑ International Court of Justice. Aerial Incident of 3 July 1988 (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America) — Iranian submission: Part IV B, The shooting down of flight IR 655, para. 4.52-4.53. Accessed 2007-01-20.
- ↑ Military Blunders History.net
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Crash: Iran Air B722 near Uromiyeh on Jan 9th 2011, impacted terrain during go-around
- Iran Air
- SkyGift Iran Air Frequent Flyer Club
- The evolution of the Iranian airline industry
- Iran Air Fleet list